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                        【文化迪慶有傳人】李麗華跳塔城熱巴:祈福接福享福

                        來源: 作者: 發布時間:2018-12-02 16:33:51
                        標簽:以夜繼朝 拉斯維加斯網上賭博 西美

                        “跳塔城熱巴,是為了祈福。而如今,我們是在享福了!”8月30日早上11:00,在迪慶藏族自治州維西傈僳族自治縣塔城鎮熱巴保護傳習中心,38歲的州級非遺傳承人李麗華剛剛領著鄉親們表演了一段塔城熱巴,他帶著一身汗水在石臺階上找了一處干凈的地方坐下來歇口氣。

                        “The Reba dancing in Tacheng used to be a pray for blessing. Now, we dance to show our happy life,” said Li Lihua, a Reba inheritor at the prefectural level.

                        On August 30 morning, the 38-year-old Li Lihua was resting on the stone steps outside the Reba Protection and Training Center in Tacheng Town, northwest Yunnan’s Diqing Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture. She just led local folks in a Reba dancing.

                        “對我們非遺傳承人來說,這是最好的時代。”李麗華的話得到了和金英的點頭認可,48歲的和金英是縣級傳承人,不過,她的父親處登是當地唱跳熱巴最有名的老師,他倆都是處登的傳人。如今,老人已過世。為了傳承技藝,2015年他們搭檔成立了塔城鎮塔城村塔城古典熱巴產業協會,帶著家鄉人——塔城村英都灣村民小組的鄉親們吃上了“熱巴飯”。

                        “As a intangible heritage inheritor, I feel we are living in a best time.” Li Lihua’s words were echoed by He Jinying, a county-level inheritor aged 48. Jin Ying’s father was a local master in the Reba dancing, who passed down his dancing skills to both Li Lihua and his daughter.

                        The master has passed away. To better inherit the skills, they joined hands with local villagers and set up in 2015 the Tacheng Classical Reba Industry Association.

                        此前1年,也就是2014年,“迪慶熱巴”被國務院公布列入國家級非物質文化遺產代表性項目名錄。它主要流傳在德欽縣云嶺鄉、維西縣塔城鎮、香格里拉市五境鄉、香格里拉市上江鄉、香格里拉市金江鎮等5個鄉鎮。

                        In 2014, the State Council rated the Reba dancing as an intangible heritage at the national level. The art is highly popular in five towns and townships in Deqin, Weixi and Shangri-La.

                        作為塔城熱巴的傳承人,李麗華唱跳很有激情,而講話卻是不緊不慢的,他從“傳說”開始給我們講塔城熱巴的故事:傳說,到維西修行的達摩到村里傳授熱巴,可是,這種舞蹈不是每個地方都適合跳,一直到永貢村才找到合適的傳人。因為是祈福的舞蹈,所以,適合的地方就會人畜興旺、五谷豐登。永貢村在藏語里是:接福的地方,這就是后來的英都灣村民小組。

                        As the Reba inheritor of Tacheng Town, Li Lihua sang with passion but told us the Reba story in a moderate tone: Bodhidharma, who was practicing Buddhism in Weixi, came to teach the dance in the countryside.

                        This dancing is very particular in choosing the dancer, and the sage did not find a proper candidate until he visited the Yonggong village.

                        In the Tibetan language, Yonggong Village means a place to receive blessings. It was believed that any place chosen for Reba is bound to prosper.

                        “處登唱跳熱巴,那是相當有名氣。”李麗華回憶,童年最美好的夜晚是躺在床上、隔墻聽處登唱熱巴。那是父親到處登家圍著火塘學習請教,因為兩家人是鄰居,隔墻聆聽非常清楚。當然,李麗華的師傅還是父親,平日里父親有空就教他唱跳。“塔城熱巴有24段歌舞,全部學完一般需要3年以上的時間。”李麗華說,他與和金英不僅掌握了全部內容,還能當領唱、領舞。

                        “There used to be a famous Reba dancer and singer named Chudeng,” Li Lihua recalled. Chudeng was the next-door neighbor of Li Lihua, and his voice could be clearly heard at Li’s home. The father also learned Reba from Chudeng and taught Li Lihua at leisure.

                        “The Tacheng Reba is divided in 24 singing and dancing pieces, and it usually takes a learner more than 3 years to complete all 24 pieces.” Li Lihua and He Jinying have mastered all 24, and they take the lead both in dancing and singing.

                        “塔城熱巴的服飾很有講究,穿好整套女裝大約要半個多小時。你看,我們表演隊每個人有一個背簍或是一個旅行箱,滿滿地裝著自己的服飾。”和金英娓娓道來,男裝背上的七彩帶,7個顏色的布帶分別代表藍天、白云、太陽、高山、海子(注:湖泊)、水稻、鯉魚。女裝標配的日月鼓,一面畫著太陽、一面畫著月亮,而唱詞里面也會唱太陽、唱月亮。總之,服飾與唱詞都反映出當地人對自然的熱愛、崇拜、敬畏。

                        “The Reba in Tacheng is very particular in costumes and dressing up,” said He Jinying. “Before each performance, the women actors would spend half an hour dressing up, each taking a back-basket or suitcase full of costumes and accessaries.”

                        On the man actors’ costumes, there are some seven-color strips, with the colors representing the blue sky, white clouds, the sun, the mountains, the lakes, the rice, and the carp. The women's dress features a drum pattern with the sun and the moon painted on its sides.

                        “以前,大家窮,一套女裝要5、6家人才能湊齊。現在,日子越來越好過,一人有兩套服飾,那是很平常的事情。”和金英笑著說,“我這套女裝要2萬元左右,也就是個中上水平,村里其他人家還有更好的呢。”

                        “In the past, a set of the Reba costume for women needs contributions from five or six families,” He Jin Ying said, smiling. “Now, we are bettering off and it’s common for each actor to have two sets.”

                        He Jinying added her costume set costs about 20,000 yuan, and some villagers have better and more expensive costumes.

                        英都灣村民小組有78戶人家,家家戶戶、老老小小都會跳熱巴。不過,熱巴的內容決定了它是很隆重、很正式的唱跳,不能隨便即興歌舞。過去,農歷二月初八,在春天來臨之際、在播種之前,全村唱跳熱巴。現在,英都灣村民小組在外工作、打工的人多了,為了照顧要外出的親人,他們從2013年開始把唱跳的日子提前到農歷二月初三,那是全村一個重要的日子,全天唱跳,熱烈而歡快。

                        In the Yingduwan villagers’ group, all folks in the 78 households can dance Reba, but the annual group dance is still grand, formal and ceremonious.

                        The group dance used to be held on the eighth day of the second lunar month annually. Starting in 2013, the group Reba falls on the third day, so that some villagers can leave home earlier to work as migrant workers.

                        “關于塔城熱巴,我還在不斷地學習研究。”李麗華謙虛地說,自從開展“非遺進校園”活動,他被請到維西的中小學、香格里拉的中小學授課,因此,要邊教邊學,才可能把傳承工作做好。“我們的產業協會還把手工制作熱巴服飾的生意做到了各個學校。”李麗華說,這就是鄉親們吃上的“熱巴飯”。

                        “I still keep learning the Tacheng Reba for teaching,” Li Lihua said he teaches the dance in the primary and secondary schools in Weixi and Shangri-La. “And hand-made costumes at the Reba industry association are favored by local schools, bringing more income to the villagers.

                        “旅游的發展,也給我們帶來了好日子。”和金英補充道,今年6月,設在塔城鎮啟別村的哈布達農莊旅游有限公司試營業,至今送了3批客人到英都灣村民小組欣賞塔城熱巴,給產業協會的會員們帶來了近4000元收入。

                        “Tourism also enriches the Reba dancers.” He Jinying added a neighboring village set up a tourist company this June. Members of the Reba industry association danced for the tourists, earning nearly 4,000 yuan.

                        “今年,俄羅斯有團體邀請我們去表演。只是因為路費太高,沒有成行。”李麗華從中看到了新機遇,”我們要在這個最好的時代讓塔城熱巴越來越‘熱’!”

                        “Earlier this year the performing team got an invitation from Russia, but we did not go there due to high cast in travel.” Li Lihua has seen craze for the Reba dance.

                        云南日報全媒體記者:儲東華 熊燕 張若谷 李文君

                        編譯:王世學

                        責任編輯:李毅寧
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